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By Peter Grunwald

Content material: 1. fundamentals in carbohydrate chemistry / Heinrich Hühnerfuss -- 2. Glycoconjugates : a short evaluation / Peter Grunwald -- three. Oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in reputation methods / Thisbe okay. Lindhorst -- four. Glycoside hydrolases / Motomitsu Kitaoka -- five. Disaccharide phosphorylases : mechanistic variety and alertness within the glycosciences / Christiane Luley-Goedl and Bernd Nidetzky -- 6. Enzymatic and chemoenzymatic synthesis of nucleotide sugars : novel enzymes, novel substrates, novel items, and novel routes / Leonie Engels and Lothar Elling -- 7. Iteratively appearing glycosyltransferases / Marta Luzhetska and Andreas Bechthold -- eight. Bacterial glycosyltransferases fascinated with molecular mimicry of mammalian glycans / Warren Wakarchuk -- nine. Sulfotransferases and sulfatases : sulfate amendment of carbohydrates / Eli Chapman and Sarah R. Hanson -- 10. Glycosylation in wellbeing and fitness and disorder / Peter Grunwald -- eleven. Sialic acid derivatives, analogues, and mimetics as organic probes and inhibitors of sialic acid spotting proteins / Joe Tiralongo and Thomas Haselhorst -- 12. Enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism and catabolism for chemoenzymatic syntheses of complicated oligosaccharides / Julian Thimm and Joachim Thiem -- thirteen. From gene to product : tailored oligosaccharides and polysaccharides by means of enzyme and substrate engineering / Jürgen Seibel -- 14. Synthesis and amendment of carbohydrates through metabolic pathway engineering in microorganisms / Xian-wei Liu ... [et al.] -- 15. Metabolic pathway engineering for hyaluronic acid creation / Esteban Marcellin, Wendy Y. Chen, and Lars okay. Nielsen -- sixteen. Microbial rhamnolipids / Markus M. Müller ... [et al.] -- 17. Chitin-converting enzymes / Karin Moss ... [et al.] -- 18. Linear and cyclic oligosaccharides / Hajime Taniguchi -- 19. Fungal degradation of plant oligo- and polysaccharides / Ronald P. de Vries ... [et al.] -- 20. Bacterial thoughts for plant mobilephone degradation and their genomic details / Yutaka Tamaru and Roy H. Doi -- 21. layout of effective multienzymatic reactions for cellulosic biomass processing / Anne S. Meyer

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2004). , soluble silver trifluoromethanesulfonate [abbr. AgOTf], AgOCl3 salts), resulting in an irreversible glycosyl transfer to the acceptor. This method forms the basis of a valuable technique for the synthesis of complex Reactions of Carbohydrates alkyl glycosides, oligosaccharides, or glycoconjugates. , 2004). In particular, application of the Helferich catalyst Hg(CN)2 was proved to be very effective (Helferich and Zirner, 1962). OH HO OH .. CH2 O HO H .. OH . OH + .. OH . O + H OH oxocarbenium intermediate R-OH approaches from the top OH OH ..

OH . HO + HO OH CH2 HO .. OH R + + -H OH CH2 HO HO -H OH .. O HO .. O OH R .. 22 Mechanism of the glycosidation reaction of β-d-glucose with an alcohol R–OH. However, in spite of the general application potential of the Koenigs–Knorr method, its requirement for up to 4 equivalents of heavy metal salts as promoter can be a limiting factor for large-scale preparations. As a consequence, Wimmer et al. (2004) suggested 23 24 Basics in Carbohydrate Chemistry a modification of the Koenigs–Knorr method that consisted of maintaining rigorously anhydrous conditions for the whole duration of the reaction via continuous azeotropic removal of any humidity, potentially present or entering the system, an approach that always resulted in the most advantageous reaction course for the Koenigs–Knorr synthesis of alkyl glycoside derivatives.

5, right hand side, bottom). In general, steric hindrance caused by adjacent substituents is lower if they are pointing in an equatorial direction. As a consequence, the 4C1 conformation with the large –CH2OH group equatorial (b-d-Glucose) Classification of Carbohydrates is favoured. 1), though the hydroxyl at the C4 atom in the aldehyde form of glucose could principally also produce a five-membered cyclic hemiacetal with the aldehyde carbonyl by nucleophilic addition. On the other hand, the b-d-glucose conformation should be weakened because the dipole moments of the C(5)→Oring and the C(1)anomer→O are nearly parallel and point into the same direction.

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