By Alex Gough
Here's a complete connection with all of the ailments and problems of canines and cats which are both inherited or extra general in sure breeds. there isn't any different unmarried publication that covers this topic. details on breed-related illnesses from a number of high quality assets are accrued jointly in a single position for the 1st time. while you're a veterinary general practitioner or scholar wanting a convenient reference ebook, or a breeder eager to recognize extra approximately your individual breed then this booklet may be worthy.
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Extra info for Breed Predispositions to Disease in Dogs and Cats
7 years in one study 19 Dogs 20 DOGS Coronary artery vasculitis • Asymptomatic • Unknown aetiology • Recognised in 34% of young Beagles Canine juvenile polyarteritis syndrome • Causes a pain syndrome • Reported in USA, France and UK Dermatological conditions Congenital hypotrichosis • Symmetrical hair loss • Usually hair loss is apparent at birth and gets worse over the following few weeks Black hair follicular dysplasia • Rare • Early onset • Familial Ehler-Danlos syndrome • Also known as cutaneous asthenia • Inherited • Various modes of inheritance Familial vasculopathy • Necrotising vasculitis of small- and mediumsized arteries • Early onset of signs Canine truncal solar dermatitis • Photosensitisation implicated • Worse in sunny climates Zinc-responsive dermatosis • In Beagles, occurs in puppies fed zincdeﬁcient diets Skin tumours • See Neoplastic conditions Endocrine conditions Lymphocytic thyroiditis (causing hypothyroidism) • Demonstrated to be inherited polygenically in laboratory Beagles Thyroid neoplasia (may be associated with hyper- or hypothyroidism, but most are euthyroid) • Possible breed predisposition • Average age 10 years Hyperadrenocorticism: pituitary-dependent (PDH) • Possible breed predisposition • Middle-aged/older; median age 10 years • 55– 60% female Diabetes mellitus • Reported in some texts to be at increased risk • Usual age range: 4 –14 years; peak incidence: 7–9 years • Old entire females are predisposed Gastrointestinal conditions Chronic hepatitis • Increased incidence noted in this breed Haematological/immunological conditions Severe combined immunodeﬁciency • Inherited as an X-linked recessive trait • Thymic hypoplasia and lymphopaenia seen Selective IgA deﬁciency • Leads to chronic respiratory conditions and • dermatitis May be associated with autoimmunity Pyruvate kinase deﬁciency • Affected dogs have abnormal red blood cells with a lifespan of about 20 days Non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia • Due to a defect in the ATPase calcium pump system in this breed Factor VII deﬁciency • Seen in families of laboratory dogs • Inherited as an autosomal dominant trait • Heterozygotes are asymptomatic Primary idiopathic hyperlipidaemia • Familial Infectious conditions Coccidiomycosis • Increased incidence in this breed possibly due to an increased likelihood of exposure • Mainly seen in young male dogs • Geographic distribution: California, Arizona, Texas, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Mexico and parts of Central and South America.
9 • May be associated anomalous coronary artery development in this breed Dermatological conditions Muzzle folliculitis and furunculosis • Possible genetic susceptibility Pododermatitis • Males predisposed • Front feet more commonly affected Bulldog (English) Generalised demodicosis are in the ten breeds at highest statistical risk of this disease in the Cornell, USA, population • Bulldogs 39 Sacrocaudal dysgenesis • Congenital • See also under Neurological conditions Canine follicular dysplasia • A marked predilection in this breed implies a genetic basis for this group of diseases Seasonal ﬂank alopecia • Tends to occur in spring or autumn Hip dysplasia • Although not ranked in the top 20 in the BVA/KC Hip Dysplasia Scheme, due to small numbers sampled, the breed mean score was 41 Neoplastic conditions Mast cell tumours • Possible breed predisposition • May be seen at any age (from 4 months onwards), but usually seen in older animals Primary lymphoedema • No apparent sex predisposition • Only seen in certain populations Primary brain tumour • See under Neurological conditions Intertrigo • May occur due to intentional breeding for excessive skin folding Lymphosarcoma (malignant lymphoma) • Higher incidence noted in this breed • Most cases are seen in middle-aged dogs (mean 6–7 years) Skin tumours • See under Neoplastic conditions Endocrine diseases Hypothyroidism • Reported in some texts to be at increased risk • Often middle-aged (2–6 years) Gastrointestinal conditions Cleft palate • Congenital disorder with inheritance suspected in this breed Musculoskeletal conditions Ununited anconeal process • A true fracture of the process occurs in this breed Congenital elbow luxation • Type II luxation occurs in this breed (prox• imal radius displaced caudolaterally) Usually 4–5 months old at presentation Hemivertebrae • Mode of inheritance not known Neurological conditions Congenital deafness • Signs seen from birth Hydrocephalus • Congenital • Relatively common • Onset of clinical signs: <3 months Hemivertebrae • Congenital • Occasionally seen Spina biﬁda (and myelodysplasia) • Congenital Sacrocaudal dysgenesis • Congenital • Occasionally reported Stenosis of the vertebral canal • Congenital Primary brain tumour • Higher incidence noted in this breed • Older dogs affected (mean 9–10 years) DOGS Brachyury Hyperoestrogenism • Rare • Affects older, intact females Dogs DOGS 40 Ocular conditions Entropion (usually lower lid) • Breed predisposition; polygenic inheritance likely Urethral prolapse • Possible breed predisposition • Generally seen in male dogs at 4 months to 5 years of age Macropalpebral ﬁssure resulting in combined entropion–ectropion (‘diamond eye’) • Breed predisposition; genetic basis incompletely understood Sacrocaudal dysgenesis (causing urinary incontinence) • Congenital • Occasionally reported Distichiasis • Breed predisposition • Cystinuria results from an inherited defect in Trichiasis • Breed predisposition; inheritance suspected • Cystine urolithiasis Keratoconjunctivitis sicca • Breed predisposition • Age of onset: 4 –7 years Urate urolithiasis Prolapse of the gland of the nictitating membrane (see plate 4) • Breed predisposition; possibly inherited • Usually presents before 2 years of age Refractory corneal ulceration • Breed predisposition • Usually middle-aged Multifocal retinal dysplasia • Simple autosomal recessive suspected • • renal tubular transport of cystine and predisposes to cystine urolithiasis Higher incidence reported in this breed in some American surveys Average age at diagnosis is 1–8 years Males seem predisposed • Higher incidence noted in this breed; familial • • predisposition suspected Average age at diagnosis is 3–6 years Males seem to be predisposed Reproductive conditions Dystocia • Breed predisposition due to combination of narrow pelvis and large head/wide shoulders Vaginal hyperplasia inheritance • Possible breed predisposition Cryptorchidism Physiological conditions Achondroplasia • Genetic dwarﬁsm • Skull and limbs affected • Accepted as a breed standard • Developmental Renal and urinary conditions Ectopic ureters • Congenital anomaly; higher incidence reported in this breed • Usually presents <1 year of age • More commonly diagnosed in females Urethral prolapse • See under Renal and urinary conditions Urethrorectal ﬁstula • Possible breed predisposition • Males more commonly affected than females Brachycephalic upper airway syndrome • Complex of anatomical deformities • Common in this breed • defect believed to be inherited as a sex-limited, autosomal recessive trait Believed to be a breed at increased risk of the condition Respiratory conditions Hypoplastic trachea • This breed accounts for 55% of cases Bull Mastiff • • ing for certain facial characteristics May be associated with non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema in this breed Aerophagia associated with this condition may lead to excessive ﬂatulence BULL MASTIFF Cardiovascular conditions Pulmonic stenosis • Third most frequent cause of canine congenital heart disease • May be polygenic mode of inheritance Dermatological conditions Muzzle folliculitis and furunculosis • Possible genetic susceptibility Pododermatitis • Males predisposed • Front feet more commonly affected Gastrointestinal conditions Gastric dilatation-volvulus • Possible breed predisposition Musculoskeletal conditions Congenital elbow luxation • Type II luxation occurs in this breed (proximal radius displaced caudolaterally) • Usually 4–5 months old at presentation Hip dysplasia • This breed has the fourth worst breed mean score in the BVA/KC Hip Dysplasia Scheme as of October 2001 • Breed mean score 28 Cranial cruciate ligament rupture • Common cause of hind-limb lameness Neoplastic conditions Lymphosarcoma (malignant lymphoma) • Familial incidence reported in this breed Neurological conditions Cerebellar degeneration • Autosomal recessive inheritance suggested • Uncommon • Signs seen at 4–9 weeks • May be seen with hydrocephalus Ocular conditions Entropion (may be associated with macropalpebral ﬁssure) • Breed predisposition; polygenic inheritance likely Ectropion (may be associated with macropalpebral ﬁssure) • Breed predisposition; polygenic inheritance likely Macropalpebral ﬁssure resulting in combined entropion–ectropion (‘diamond eye’) • Breed predisposition; genetic basis incompletely understood Distichiasis • Breed predisposition Persistent pupillary membranes (PPM) • Inheritance suspected • Schedule 3 of the BVA/KC/ISDS Eye Scheme Glaucoma • Possible breed predisposition Multifocal retinal dysplasia • Breed predisposition; autosomal recessive inheritance suspected Renal and urinary conditions Cystine urolithiasis • Cystinuria results from an inherited defect in renal tubular transport of cystine and predisposes to cystine urolithiasis • Higher incidence reported in this breed in some American surveys • Average age at diagnosis is 1–8 years • Males seem predisposed Reproductive conditions Vaginal hyperplasia • Breed predisposition DOGS • Likely to be a consequence of selective breed- 41 Dogs 42 BULL TERRIER DOGS Cardiovascular conditions Mitral dysplasia • Congenital • Genetic basis suspected Musculoskeletal conditions Osteochondrodysplasia • Does not cause dwarﬁng in this breed • Familial but inheritance not known Congenital elbow luxation • Type II luxation occurs in this breed (proximal radius displaced caudolaterally) Aortic stenosis • Common congenital disease • Inheritance possibly autosomal dominant with modifying genes, or polygenic • Usually 4–5 months old at presentation Dermatological conditions Nasal folliculitis and furunculosis • Uncommon • Unknown cause Hock osteochondritis dissecans • Affects dogs 4–6 months of age • Reasonably common cause of lameness Pododermatitis • Males predisposed • Front feet more commonly affected Demodicosis • Possible breed predisposition Ichthyosis • Rare; congenital Acrodermatitis • Inherited as an autosomal recessive trait Waardenburg-Klein syndrome • Inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance Truncal solar dermatitis • Affects white Bull Terriers • More common in sunny climates Zinc responsive dermatosis • In Bull Terriers, occurs in puppies fed zincdeﬁcient diets Skin tumours • See under Neoplastic conditions Haematological/immunological conditions Acrodermatitis • Inherited • T-lymphocytes are depleted Avulsion of tibial tuberosity • A growth-plate avulsion fracture Neoplastic conditions Actinic keratosis (solar keratosis) • Reported to be at increased risk • Seen more commonly in pale-skinned animals with the opportunity for long periods of intense sun exposure Mast cell tumours • Possible breed predisposition • May be seen at any age (from 4 months onwards), but usually seen in older animals Neurological conditions Congenital deafness • Autosomal recessive inheritance suggested • Signs seen from birth Cerebellar malformation • Congenital • Uncommon • Age of clinical onset: <3 months Ocular conditions Micropalpebral ﬁssure • Breed predisposition Entropion (usually lateral lower lids, may be associated with micropalpebral ﬁssure) • Breed predisposition; polygenic inheritance likely Ectropion (mild, usually disappears with maturity) • Breed predisposition; polygenic inheritance likely Cairn Terrier Prolapse of the gland of the nictitating membrane • Breed predisposition • Usually presents before 2 years of age Congenital polycystic liver disease • Breed predisposition • May be associated with polycystic kidney disease Renal and urinary conditions Polycystic kidney disease • Autosomal dominant inheritance suggested • Polycystic kidney disease is associated with nodular thickenings of the mitral and aortic valves.
5 • Females predisposed • Mode of inheritance is polygenic Dermatological conditions Congenital hypotrichosis • Present at birth or develops in the ﬁrst month of life • Predisposition for males suggests sex linkage Haematological/immunological conditions Haemophilia B • Factor IX deﬁciency • Also known as Christmas disease • Inherited as a sex-linked trait • Less common than haemophilia A Neurological conditions Shaker dog disease • Has been reported • Age of onset: 9 months to 2 years Atlantoaxial subluxation • Congenital • Age of onset: <1 year Ocular conditions Entropion (usually medial lower lids) • Breed predisposition; polygenic inheritance likely Figure 2a Although not listed as a predisposed breed, the Bichon Frise may be commonly affected by intervertebral disc disease.