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Subject A was so withdrawn that he would remain impassive when cigarettes were waved before his eyes. This subject attended group therapy sessions and during one session the experimenter, accidentally dropping a packet of chewing gum, noticed that the subject's eyes moved towards the gum. This eye movement was thus chosen as the first link in a shaping programme and the gum was chosen as a reinforcer. First, the subject was reinforced for looking up, then for moving his mouth and, upon the emergence of a croaking sound, this REINFORCEMENT TECHNIQUES 35 vocalization was shaped by reinforcement, closer and closer to the sound 'gum*.

1 shows the conversation test scores and session scores of the experimental and control patients of pair 5 in the main experiment and the scores of the control patient in the crossover experiment. This pair showed the conditioning effect most clearly. 48 BEHAVIOUR E X P E R I M E N T AL CONTROL THERAPY SESSION P A T I E NT PATIENT SCORES C O N V E R S A T I ON 0 TEST SCORES X 1 0 0MA 1 N E X PE R I M E NT CROSSOVE R 9 08 07 0O ' 6 0I u 5 0-

Thus it seems that in some way the aversion method resulted in a facilitation of heterosexual erections during the course of the session. Summarizing the comparison of the two methods, therefore, one can say that there is only one striking difference between the methods, and that is the facilitatory effect on the heterosexual erections during the session which has just been described. In addition other less striking differences are the reduction of homosexual erections and increase in heterosexual erections from the beginning to end of treatment, greater in the aversion group, and the increase in heterosexual attitudes, greater in the desensitization group.

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