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By Daniel Banda, José Moure

Le rêve de transporter, de projeter et d’animer les photos est peut-être immémorial et l’histoire de ceux qui ont voulu faire vivre ce rêve est déjà longue quand, en 1895, les frères Lumière projettent los angeles vie, prise sur le vif, sur l’écran du cinématographe. Cette anthologie rassemble quelque cent textes qui nous invitent à parcourir une histoire culturelle de l. a. imaginative and prescient, de ses moyens et dispositifs, de l’idée que nous nous faisons du obvious, des attentes, des croyances et de l’imaginaire qui s’y rattachent, afin de mieux comprendre nos propres façons de voir et de vivre avec les images.

De Platon à Jules Verne, avant le cinéma, sans le cinéma, se croisent les préoccupations philosophiques, artistiques et littéraires autant que sociales, scientifiques et thoughts. Autour des jeux de l’ombre et de los angeles lumière, de l. a. chambre noire, des lanternes magiques, de l. a. fantasmagorie, des panoramas, de los angeles photographie, des machines optiques et des photos en mouvement, dialoguent, parmi bien d’autres, Vinci, Kepler et Sterne, Kircher, Inés de los angeles Cruz et Leibniz, Robertson, Balzac et Strindberg, et encore Kleist, Wordsworth et Hawthorne, Lichtenberg, Hoffmann, Hugo, Marx et Zola, Arago, Poe, Delacroix et Nadar, Plateau, Baudelaire, Marey et Edison, Villiers de l’Isle-Adam, H. G. Wells et Charles Cros…

Daniel Banda, professeur agrégé, enseigne los angeles philosophie au Lycée Victor Hugo à Paris et l’esthétique à l’université de Paris I Panthéon- Sorbonne. José Moure, ancien élève de l’École normale supérieure, est professeur en études cinématographiques à l’université de Paris I Panthéon- Sorbonne. Ensemble, ils ont publié "Le Cinéma : naissance d’un artwork: 1895-1920" et "Le Cinéma : l’art d’une civilisation: 1920-1960".

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Extra resources for Avant le cinéma: L'oeil et l'image

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Qxd 1/15/08 9:27 AM Page 9 the invention of the movies An Edison Kinetoscope parlor, circa 1894. wore off, Edison was pushed by economic need to create more bizarre entertainments, notably Boxing Cats (1898), in which two cats duke it out in a miniature boxing ring in a parody of his “fight” films Leonard-Cushing Fight and Boxing Match (both 1894). Even in works that were devoid of violence, like Highland Dance (1894), Edison was constructing a gallery of films that involved exaggerated masculinity (the boxing films) and stylized sensuality (the Ella Lola and Carmencita films).

Phantom trains” were also popular during this period, in which “passengers” would “travel” the world through the illusion of projected backdrops, while primitive hydraulic devices created the sensation of movement, much like today’s amusement rides at Universal Studios and Disneyland. As a sort of precursor to the big-budget cinema spectacles of the 1950s, Robert Barker’s Panorama, which played in Edinburgh in 1787, presented to audiences views of huge paintings that recreated famous historical tableaux.

Qxd 1/15/08 9:30 AM Page 23 the birth of an american industry ments that gave his films a style all their own, along with his use of a recognizable stock company of players. While his early films used intercutting of simultaneous events to create suspense— and The Lonely Villa (1909), for example, used a then-unprecedented number of camera setups to enhance the speed of the narrative—Griffith was most at home with the conventions of Victorian melodrama. Working with his favorite cameraman, G. W. “Billy” Bitzer, Griffith nevertheless enlarged the technical grammar of the cinema, and, like Alice Guy before him, insisted on rehearsals and on reducing actors’ movements to make his scenarios seem more natural.

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