By Pierre Miquel
Книга по истории Европы, описывает период с 1450 по 1550 гг.
Содержит большое число иллюстраций по культуре и быту европейцев в эпоху великих географических открытий.
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Extra resources for Au temps des grandes decouvertes: 1450-1550
C. ) "Nanajatiya ..... arthakamapradhanah samghah pugah Karmakaravrndesu nanajatiyajanasamghesu - pugah" · 2. Vol. 1. P· 22 (G. ) XI. 1. "Sastropajivinam rajavidheyanan samuhah- Samghah" 3. XI. 1. 4. II. 33. 5. IX 2. VIII. 4. 'SRENI Ayudhiya-karsakanamanyonyasamgatanam Samgah. '-Vol. III: p. 27 (G. ) ' SRENIBALAM Janapadayudhiyaganarupam balam. Vol. III. p. 51. 6. IX. 2.
And to their efficacy as Yagnas. 1 Kautilya mentions of Vedic deities as Agni, Varuna, Y ama, Asvinis, V aisravana and Jayanta, who had to be propitiated for averting national calamities; and accordingly, the king was advised to visit such places of worship. nu. It is remarkable that there is no reference int~ Arthasastra to Buddhism or Jainism and probably the~e religions had not attained great prominence ; s ; but the text abounds with refer"". ences to Pasanda heretics with matted hair, and Bhiksuki and female mendicants.
Rmed \ to a general type which was first described by Aristotle. The chief organ 1n these States was ·a ' large deliberative Council. The Cou_ncil of 7707 i, 1. V. A. Smith: The Early History of India, p .. ~37, 16 STUDIES IN KAUTILYA kings among the Vrijikas; the Council of 500 among the Sakas; the Assembly of 5000 among the Yaudheyas and the Council of Elders among the Ambastas. Elaborate regulations as regards the moving of resolutions, the taking of votes and other matters of procedure obtained in these Councils as in the Councils of the City-states of Greece.