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By Walter Tape

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Published through the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Antarctic study Series.

Archdeacon caught used to be seeing halos shaped in moonlight. Their daylight hours opposite numbers are unusually universal, not just within the arctic yet in temperate climates besides. Many halos are attainable, forming arcs of coloured or white gentle nearly at any place within the sky. Their occasional brilliance, sort, and unique shapes have inspired skywatchers for centuries.

This e-book introduces halos and attempts to show a few of their attractiveness. It tells a lot of what's identified approximately them: how they come up, how such a lot of are attainable, and why a few are infrequent, whereas others ensue each few days or so. No such insights, in fact, are beneficial for the joy of a halo exhibit; certainly, an intricate show is one in all Nature's wonders. however, knowing can upload to amusement, specially because the makings of an outstanding show turn into as extraordinary because the show itself.

Chapter 1 Halos from Plate Crystals (pages 1–12): Walter Tape
Chapter 2 Halos from Column Crystals (pages 13–27): Walter Tape
Chapter three Halos from Parry orientated Crystals (pages 29–44): Walter tape
Chapter four The 22° and forty six° Halos (pages 45–51): Walter Tape
Chapter five Why Are the infrequent Halos infrequent? (pages 53–57): Walter Tape
Chapter 6 The position of sunlight Elevation (pages 58–68): Walter Tape
Chapter 7 Subhorizon Halos (pages 69–76): Walter Tape
Chapter eight chilly climate Halos (page 77): Walter Tape
Chapter nine Organizing the Halos (pages 78–81): Walter Tape
Chapter 10 Pyramidal Crystals and atypical Radius round Halos (pages 82–94): Walter Tape
Chapter eleven Hevel'S Halo and different Mysteries (pages 95–104): Walter Tape

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Sample text

Are Display 3-1 3-1 Display South Pole, Pole, January January 21, 21, 1986 1986 South The simulation below shows shows the the halos halos theoretically theoretically expected expected from from column column crystals crystals The simulation below having nearlyperfect Parryorientations, thatis,fromcolumns havingtwoprismfaces almost exactly horizontal. Except for the Parry infralateral arcs, all of the the halos halos labeled labeled in in almost exactly horizontal. Except fortheParryinfralateral arcs,allof having nearly perfect Parry orientations, that is, from columns having two prism faces the simulation simulation were were present present in in Display Display 3-1, 3 -1, shown on the the next next several several pages.

Figure 2-23. Commonray path for the subhelicarc. Figure 2-24. View lookingaway from the sun,Display 2-4. CompareFigureC-21. Copyright American Geophysical Union Antarctic Research Series Atmospheric Halos 26 ATMOSPHERIC HALOS Tricker arc. The Tricker arc is alsofaint in the photographs, the bestbeing Figure 2-24. Their geometryis muchlike that of subhelicarc ray paths,exceptthatthe Tricker arc pathshavean internalreflectionfrom a basalface. Like raysfor the subhelicarc and for 120ø parhelia,Tricker arc rays are deviatedby 120ø as seenfrom the endof the crystal.

The displaysin the presentchapter, as well as Display 2-3 and Display 2-4 in the precedingchapter,contain many examplesof halos arising in Parry oriented crystals. Parry orientationsseemto be a normal falling mode for ordinarycolumns. 3 Perhapsa certainfractionof columncrystalsnaturallyfall with Parry orientations. Apparentlynearly all of the horizontalcolumncrystalshad Parry orientations. Unfortunately,exceptfor the parheliaand probably the circumzenith arc, the haloswere not at low level, and no meaningfulcrystalsamplecould be obtained.

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