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Pulse Code Modulation The most common modulation scheme employed in optical fiber communication is pulse-code modulation. In this, each amplitude of the values sampled is represented by a binary number consisting of eight digits (Fig. 3). Since the maximum decimal value with eight digits is 255 (= 128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1), the maximum amplitude of the signal is restricted to 255 so that all integer values of signal can be represented by a sequence of 1’s and 0’s. In pulse-code modulation, the given analog signal is first sampled at an appropriate rate, and then the sample values are converted to binary form.

This is known as total internal reflection, a subject of great practical importance. The phenomenon of total internal reflection (TIR) can be very easily demonstrated through a simple experiment, as shown in Fig. 11. A thick semicircular glass disk is immersed in a glass vessel filled with water. A laser beam from a helium–neon (He–Ne) laser or simply a laser pointer is directed toward the center of the semicircular disk so that it is incident normally on the glass surface and goes undeviated, as shown in the figure.

This happens due to the specific paths that light rays emanating from objects take while propagating through the air column. The ground, being hot, heats up the air in contact with it while the air at a height is cooler. Thus, the temperature of air decreases as we go above the ground. The refractive index of a gas depends on the temperature, and this temperature variation also leads to an increase in the refractive index as we move up from the ground. Now, imagine a light ray emanating from an object as shown in Fig.

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