By Elizabeth Tedsen, Sandra Cavalieri, R. Andreas Kraemer
The Arctic sector performs a tremendous function in regulating the world’s weather and can also be hugely impacted by way of weather swap, with ordinary temperatures emerging virtually two times as quick because the remainder of the area and sea ice melting a lot swifter than formerly anticipated. those swift adjustments could have major affects on human task within the area and at the Arctic marine atmosphere.
This booklet attracts at the result of the 2008-2009 Arctic remodel undertaking, funded via the ecu Commission‘s Directorate common of exterior kin, which engaged specialists in a transatlantic dialogue at the roles of the eu Union and usa in gentle of the Arctic’s altering weather and political and felony complexities. . The booklet addresses the numerous alterations and advancements within the marine Arctic, with descriptions and suggestions reflecting the present governance atmosphere. A accomplished evaluate of environmental governance and sustainable improvement within the Arctic is created. Chapters discover affects and actions via region, taking a look at fisheries, delivery, and offshore hydrocarbon within the Arctic, and at coverage techniques and techniques for making improvements to marine governance within the sector. a specific concentration is given to the jobs of the ecu Union and usa and possibilities for cooperation to reinforce Arctic environmental governance.
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Additional resources for Arctic Marine Governance: Opportunities for Transatlantic Cooperation
2 Chemicals and Air Pollution Another global threat to the Arctic environment stems from a complex system of interdependencies within air and ocean currents as well as meteorological particularities. The Arctic region has proven to be a sink for pollutants from around the globe, due to its atmospheric conditions: Low air, ground, and water temperatures have a severe impact on the reactivity of chemicals. Once transported into the region—be it via pathways in the air or the ocean, or by riverine discharge— chemicals remain largely in place.
2 Biodiversity links between Arctic marine and land environments Biodiversity thrives in the delta regions of these rivers, as they offer a range of various specific habitats. It is important to note that the marine environment is not entirely distinct from the terrestrial environment, as marine mammals, seabirds, and humans are dependent on both for their survival (ACIA 2005). Several species, including Atlantic salmon and some populations of polar bears (CAFF 2001), are specialized in migration between land/freshwater and oceanic habitats, for breeding and hunting grounds respectively, thereby linking the Arctic marine environment to land-based impacts, such as pollution.
In terms of affecting long-term levels of and impacts from contaminants in the Arctic, anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases may become as important as emissions of the contaminants themselves (AMAP 2004). Other forms of transboundary air pollution contribute to Arctic haze, a reddishbrown fog in the lower atmosphere at high northern latitudes. It is caused by a mixture of sulphate, black carbon, nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and other contaminants. These aerosol particles provide a transport pathway for pollution into the Arctic and can also contribute to climate change (ACIA 2005).