By John Robin Baker
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In the hospital environment, transfer of nosocomial organisms from instruments and the hands of personnel can be a significant source of infection (59). Elizabethan collars prevent chewing of the catheter or intravenous fluid line (60). Additionally, breaks in sterility of the catheter or fluid line can increase the likelihood of catheter-related infection. Large-bore central venous catheters are relatively contraindicated in any animal with a hyper- or hypocoagulable state. For example, the placement of a large-bore central catheter in an animal with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) or the vitamin K antagonist rodenticide intoxication can be associated with unnecessary iatrogenic hemorrhage from the catheter site.
The dorsal pedal artery can be catheterized for longer use. For catheterization of the dorsal pedal artery, the animal is placed in lateral recumbency, with the limb that is going to be catheterized nearer to the table. The limb is extended and an assistant restrains the limb at the level of the hock or stifle, to prevent patient movement. The area over the dorsal pedal artery is clipped and aseptically scrubbed. The artery is palpated as it runs between the metatarsal bones (46). The stylette of an over-the-needle catheter is inserted through the skin at an approximately 15–30° angle (47), and is pushed into the artery until a flash of blood is seen in the catheter hub.
5% dextrose 363 Acetate 16 40 40 13 Plasmalyte-M + 5% dextrose 377 Acetate 12 Lactate 12 40 40 16 3% NaCl 1026 0 513 513 0 7% NaCl 2400 0 1283 1283 0 Introduction 51 The specific type of intravenous fluid that is chosen for a particular disease should be based on its individual components (Table 9). In addition to being categorized based on the tonicity relative to the extracellular compartment, intravenous fluids are also categorized for their role in either replacing or Calcium Magnesium Glucose 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 50 g/L 0 0 25 g/L 0 3 50 g/L 5 3 100 g/L 0 0 0 0 0 0 maintaining serum acid–base and electrolyte status, or in the retention of fluid within the vascular space.