By Liz Welsh
Basic veterinary collections from libraries to training vet references will locate Liz Welsh does a great modifying activity in ANAESTHESIA FOR VETERINARY NURSES, a survey written particularly for veterinary nurses by means of veterinary nurses and surgeons. assurance of the diversity of physiological and pharmacological features of anesthesia were absolutely up-to-date and mirror the newest adjustments to veterinary nursing.
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Normal veterinary collections from libraries to practising vet references will locate Liz Welsh does an outstanding modifying task in ANAESTHESIA FOR VETERINARY NURSES, a survey written in particular for veterinary nurses via veterinary nurses and surgeons. insurance of the variety of physiological and pharmacological elements of anesthesia were absolutely up-to-date and replicate the newest adjustments to veterinary nursing.
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Extra resources for Anaesthesia for Veterinary Nurses
Many patients have suffered chronic hypoxia and have blood gas abnormalities with altered uptake of gaseous anaesthetics. In these individuals, and in animals with severe disease, therapy may be required to stabilise the patient before investigative procedures. Stabilisation may require antibiotic therapy, diuretics and bronchodilators, which may, unfortunately, have some effect on the cytological features of the disease and the Preoperative Assessment and Preparation 49 culture results. Procedures should be as short as possible and some (for example, transtracheal wash) may be performed without chemical restraint or with light sedation alone.
Where an animal suffers from acidaemia or alkalaemia, the hydrogen ion concentration will have changed. One way that the body can rectify this is by altering the amount of carbon dioxide in the body. g. due to diabetes mellitus) the hydrogen ion concentration will have increased. Carbon dioxide can be combined with water to produce carbonic acid and so bicarbonate and hydrogen ions. This reaction can be reversed to remove hydrogen ions and produce carbon dioxide. If the animal is acidaemic, hydrogen ions are removed from the circulation with the result that more carbon dioxide is produced.
This is detected by baroreceptors and the heart rate increases to compensate. A similar mechanism operates in animals. Pathological causes of increased blood pressure (hypertension) include: • • • • decreased arterial oxygen concentration; increased arterial carbon dioxide concentration; decreased blood flow to the brain; increased intracranial pressure. In contrast visceral pain causes a decrease in blood pressure (hypotension). Many anaesthetic agents can affect blood pressure (see Chapter 6).