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By Robert G. Fleagle and Joost A. Businger (Eds.)

This publication is addressed to those that desire to comprehend the connection among atmospheric phenomena and the character of subject as expressed within the ideas of physics. The fascinating atmospheric phenomena are greater than functions of gravitation, of thermodynamics, of hydrodynamics, or of electrodynamics; and mastery of the result of managed scan and of the similar idea by myself doesn't suggest an knowing of atmospheric phenomena. This contrast arises as the quantity and the complexity of the ambience let results and interactions which are solely negligible within the laboratory or are intentionally excluded from it. the target of laboratory physics is, through setting apart the suitable variables, to bare the elemental homes of subject; while the target of atmospheric physics, or of any observational technological know-how, is to appreciate these phenomena which are attribute of the total process. For those purposes the exposition of atmospheric physics calls for big extensions of classical physics. It additionally calls for that knowing be in line with a coherent "way of seeing" the ensemble of atmospheric phenomena. merely then is knowing prone to stimulate nonetheless extra basic insights.

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Gradients of pressure in the horizontal are associated with horizontal pressure forces. The form of the horizontal pressure force per unit mass may be developed using Fig. 6 although it is also easily inferred from the prior discussion of the vertical pressure force. The pressure force acting on the left-hand face of the volume element is directed along the y axis, and it is expressed by p dx dz where p represents pressure at the center of the face. The pressure on the right-hand face is expressed by the first two terms of a Taylor expansion in the form, p + (oploy) dy, and the pressure force acting in the y direction is given by [p + (oploy) dy] dx dz.

3. Find the gravitational force between the sphere of Problem 2 and the point mass m if the point mass is located within the sphere of radius R. 4. Find the height above the earth at which the component in the direction to the center of the earth of the gravitational force due to the earth and the moon vanishes (a) along a line joining the centers of the earth and moon, (b) along a line at 30° to the line joining the centers of the Earth and moon. 5. Find the angle between g* and g at the surface of the earth as a function of latitude.

5 mb), even though the tide generating force of the sun is less than that of the moon. Lord Kelvin recognized this paradox in the 1870s, and he consequently attributed the solar semidiurnal wave not to gravitational effects at all, but to thermal excitation of the atmosphere through absorption of solar radiation. However, development of this idea in a quantitatively satisfactory manner proved to be elusive and difficult. It was not until the late 1960s that R. S. Lindzen showed that absorption of solar radiation by ozone between 20 and 80 km above the earth, together with absorption by water vapor in the lower atmosphere, results in atmospheric motions which are associated with the semidiurnal pressure changes observed at the ground.

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