By Sierpinski W.
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Extra resources for Algebre des ensembles
In the same way as with a subroutine, the PC of the interrupted code is pushed onto the stack when the interrupt is serviced. The return instruction, used in an ISR, may be different from that used at the end of a subroutine, it depends upon the particular microprocessor, but the effect is always to pop the old PC off the stack in order to continue where it left off in the interrupted program. 1 Context Saving For interrupts to be really useful, their execution must have no effect upon the interrupted code.
This necessitates an 45 46 PROGRAMMING DEDICATED MICROPROCESSORS appreciation of the capabilities of these devices and their programming, which is discussed later in this chapter (Kane and Osborne, 1978). 2 1/0 Addressing Until the advent of cheap minicomputers, designers of CPUs treated 1/0 (quite properly) as a special function, quite separate from other processing. This resulted in the provision of a whole set of specific 1/0 operations in the instruction set of the computer. This philosophy has persisted into modem mainframe design by the use of independent hardware to perform 1/0 ('channels'), without burdening the central processor.
For example, an eight-bit analogue may only have 256 discrete values, whereas a twelve-bit value may have 4096 steps. Analogue Output Analogue output from a microprocessor is performed using a digital to analogue ('d-to-a') converter (often called a 'DAC'). The usual principle of operation is quite straightforward. Each bit corresponds to a specific voltage. These voltages are generated when the corresponding bit is set to '1' and added together to produce the final output. The most significant bit corresponds to a voltage of half full scale, the next most significant to one-quarter of full scale, and so forth.