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This advisor describes the consequences of diverse variables on shrinkage and creep of hardened concrete, together with blend proportions, atmosphere, layout, and development. This record is geared toward designers who desire to achieve additional information regarding components altering shrinkage and creep yet doesn't comprise details at the prediction of shrinkage and creep or structural layout matters linked to shrinkage and creep.

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Additional resources for ACI 209.1R-05: Report on Factors Affecting Shrinkage and Creep of Hardened Concrete

Sample text

CHAPTER T W O The Articulatory Account of Voice As indicated in Chapter 1, the physical description of voice is phonetic. In the next two chapters we examine the two major types of phonetic description-articulatory (this chapter)and acoustic (Chapter 3), although some account of vocal tension will also be given. Unlike in the last chapter, we are now concerned with the development of a physical description of voice in the 20th century. The present chapter concentrates on the work of John Laver in the 1960s and 1970s, and in so doing introduces some of the key issues surrounding the articulatory description of voice such as the standardization of ter­ minology, the scope of individual terms, and the need for a coherent model based on accepted phonetic practices.

Its aim is to provide an understanding of the basic terms and measures, to allow the reader to follow the arguments and presentations of researchers working in acoustics. Glossaries of important terms have been provided at the end of each of these two chapters. Chapters 4 and 5 present a largely psychological account of voice; a perspective drawn mainly from social psychology and communication studies although some studies from sociolinguistics will be included. Chapter 4 is concerned with the vocal communication of identity, and is divided into two main sections.

For modal voicing, fundamental frequency is produced by an interaction of mass and tension. The overall perceptual effect of tense and lax voice, that is, the degree of tension in the voice, is to increase and decrease pitch and loudness, respectively. However, in articulatory and aerodynamic terms, degree of tension is characterized by a profile of subglottal, laryngeal, and supralaryngeal features. Thus, what we perceive as a tense voice is made up in part by higher air pressure in the subglottal area, the whole larynx raised slightly, constriction of the laryngeal and pharyngeal cavities, a convex surface to the tongue, and vigorous activity of the lips and jaw.

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