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By Jonathan Clements

'From the Fury of the Northmen bring us, O Lord'. among the 8th and 11th centuries, the Vikings surged from their Scandinavian place of origin to exchange, raid and invade alongside the coasts of Europe. Their impression and expeditions prolonged from Newfoundland to Baghdad, their battles have been as far-flung as Africa and the Arctic. yet have been they nice seafarers or determined outcasts, noble heathens or oafish pirates, the final pagans or the 1st of the trendy Europeans? This concise learn places medieval chronicles, Norse sagas and Muslim bills along more moderen examine into ritual magic, genetic profiling and climatology. It contains biographical sketches of a few of the main well-known Vikings, from Erik Bloodaxe to Saint Olaf, and King Canute to Leif the fortunate. It explains why the Danish king Harald Bluetooth lent his identify to a twenty-first century instant expertise; which destiny saint laughed as she buried overseas ambassadors alive; why such a lot of Icelandic settlers had Irish names; and, how the final Viking colony was once destroyed by means of English raiders. Extending past the conventional 'Viking age' of such a lot books, "A short historical past of the Vikings" areas unexpected Scandinavian inhabitants stream in a much broader historic context. It offers a balanced appraisal of those notorious sea kings, explaining either their fast enlargement and its meant halt. intended simply because, eventually, the Vikings didn't disappear: they become us.

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Indeed, much of what has been identified as “humanist” involves the recasting of education in postclassical terms, part of which occurred as a result of the so-called Babylonian Captivity, that is, the doubling of the papacy that allowed Avignon and France to become a meeting place that vied with Rome for ecclesiasts and scholars from other parts of Europe and that functioned in the fifteenth century as a conduit for the collection, copying, translation, and transmission of manuscripts, often back to Italy.

Commentary on Boethius Enrique de Villena of Aragon, marqués de Villena (1384–1434), Los doze trabajos de ercoles (in Catalan, 1417; Castilian: Los doce trabajos); translation of and commentary on Dante, Divina Commedia; translation and glosses on Virgil’s Aeneid, books 1–3 italian Dante, Commedia (begun 1307; finished 1321) Jacopo Alighieri, Chiose alla cantica dell’Inferno (1322–24) Graziolo de’ Bambaglioli, Latin commentary on Dante (Inferno only) (1324) Fra’ Guido da Pisa (Guido Sodalis), Expositiones et glose super Comediam Dantis (ca.

Christine de Pizan presents the “Epistre Othea” to the dauphin. Christine de Pizan, “Epistre Othea,” frontispiece. © The British Library Board. L. Harley 4431, fol. 95r (miniatures by the Master of the Cité des Dames and workshop). 2. The goddess Othea on a cloud presents her letter to the youthful Trojan prince Hector. ” © The British Library Board. L. Harley 4431, fol. 95v (miniatures by the Master of the Cité des Dames and workshop). introduction  3. Christine de Pizan presents her anthology manuscript to Queen Isabeau of Bavaria, her ladies seated around her.

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